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Gull Wing, Guillotine And Butterfly: A Guide To Car Doors

Gull Wing, Guillotine And Butterfly: A Guide To Car Doors
Gull Wing, Guillotine And Butterfly: A Guide To Car Doors
Video: Gull Wing, Guillotine And Butterfly: A Guide To Car Doors
Video: A Very Serious Guide About Car Doors. 2023, February
Anonim

The first cars in history easily did without doors at all, but over the past century, a great variety of their different options were invented! We are talking about the most popular and very rare doors.

Swing doors

Plymouth barracuda
Plymouth barracuda
Chevrolet impala
Chevrolet impala
Bentley Continental GT
Bentley Continental GT

They do not have a specific name, so you can consider them “simple”, “ordinary” or, say, “swinging”: after all, they swing open after all. In 99.9% of cases, swing doors perfectly cope with their immediate task - to launch the driver and passenger into the cabin and hide them from adversity. But the world would be too boring without the imagination of automobile designers who will gladly complicate and rethink even such a banal thing as doors …

"Gull wing"

Mercedes-Benz 300 SL
Mercedes-Benz 300 SL
Gull Wing, Guillotine and Butterfly: A Guide to Car Doors
Gull Wing, Guillotine and Butterfly: A Guide to Car Doors
Gull Wing, Guillotine and Butterfly: A Guide to Car Doors
Gull Wing, Guillotine and Butterfly: A Guide to Car Doors

Gullwing doors are some of the most spectacular of their kind. But they appeared not out of a desire to show off, but out of necessity. They are believed to have been invented in the early 1950s for the Mercedes-Benz 300 SL (W194) racing car. The spatial frame made it difficult to equip the car with traditional swing doors, and the technical regulations did not say anything about the type of doors - the main thing was that they had to be. And which ones are not important. And the German designers built small doors for the 300 SL that opened upward.

Soon, W194 will win the 24 Hours of Le Mans and Carrera Panamericana in just one season, take 2nd place at the Miglia Miglia, and the "seagull wings" will turn from an ersatz solution into a symbol of coolness and style. Although getting into the salon of both the racing and the civilian 300 SL with them is still a punishment.

Sliding doors

Volkswagen Typ 147 Kleinlieferwagen
Volkswagen Typ 147 Kleinlieferwagen
Kaiser-Darrin
Kaiser-Darrin
Kaiser-Darrin
Kaiser-Darrin
Bmw z1
Bmw z1

Comfortable, sliding on guides passenger doors of minivans and minibuses appeared in the 60s on VW single-volume models. Much less often, sliding doors are used on passenger cars, but you can still find them.

In 1954, the controversial designer Howard Darrin introduced a sports roadster on the chassis of a budget sedan from the Kaiser brand. Its feature was the doors that went into the front fenders! It turned out spectacularly, but not very convenient. Door niches "Kaiser-Darrin" were limited in length, so you literally had to squeeze into the interior of the roadster. The creators of the BMW Z1 were also known as originals in the late 80s: the plastic doors of the compact German roadster literally sank into the openings of the side sills.

Guillotine doors

Lamborghini Diablo SE 30
Lamborghini Diablo SE 30
Lamborghini countach
Lamborghini countach
AlfRomeo Carabo
AlfRomeo Carabo
Bugatti EB110
Bugatti EB110
Spyker c8
Spyker c8
Vector W8
Vector W8
Renault Twizzy
Renault Twizzy

They rise and fall in a vertical plane and resemble - correctly - a guillotine blade. They are also called "Lambo-doors" and, probably, there is no need to explain why. Just remember Countach, Diablo, Murcielago, Reventon … But for the first time doors of this type appeared not on Lamborghini at all, but on AlfRomeo. The young designer of the Bertone studio, Marcello Gandini, has equipped the Carabo concept car with guillotines (look at the photos just above).

In the future, Gandini will create the appearance of the same "Kuntash" and "Diablo", once again being unable to resist the temptation of the guillotine. Despite the stuck nickname, "Lambo doors" sometimes appeared on supercars of other brands, for example, on the Bugatti EB110, Spyker C8 and Vector W8. They even have them on Renault Twizzy.

Suicidal doors

Mercedes-Benz 170 S Coupe
Mercedes-Benz 170 S Coupe
Bugatti Type 46 Sports Saloon
Bugatti Type 46 Sports Saloon
Rolls-royce dawn
Rolls-royce dawn
MazdRX-8
MazdRX-8
Opel meriva
Opel meriva

In fact, these are ordinary swing doors that do not open in the direction of travel, but in the opposite direction. At the dawn of the car, they were the most common type of "entrance gate" - after all, the same doors were installed on carriages and carriages.

Over the years of operation, there were serious flaws at doors with rear hinges. Imagine what happens if a door of this type is even slightly opened in motion - the flow of incoming air will open it all the way. If we remember that cars of the first half of the 20th century were not equipped with seat belts, then any accidental discovery could lead to trouble.We also know from Prohibition-era police chronicles that rear-opening doors were extremely popular among gangsters - for the same reason: they could quickly get rid of an unwanted passenger.

Today, there is no practical sense in doors of this type. A unique case of their use on the front doors is the Rolls-Royce Dawn coupe. At the rear, they are more common: on the same Rolls-Royce, MazdRX-8 coupe, Opel Meriv minivan and some pickup trucks with a double cab.

"Butterfly wing"

AlfRomeo Tipo 33 Stradale
AlfRomeo Tipo 33 Stradale
McLaren F1
McLaren F1
Ferrari LaFerrari
Ferrari LaFerrari
ToyotSera
ToyotSera

One can argue: is the "butterfly wing" worthy of mentioning as a separate category, or is it more correct to consider them a subclass of "gull wing" and "Lambo doors"? In fact, the butterfly took the best of the two designs, providing the most ease of entry / exit, as well as requiring less space to do so. After all, "butterfly wings" open simultaneously upward and to the side, sometimes capturing not only the sidewall of the body, but also part of the roof.

By the way, AlfRomeo is also considered the pioneer of the butterfly style. We are talking about the Model 33 Stradale - the road version of the real racing sports prototype Tipo 33 and one of the craziest and fastest supercars of the 60s. In recent years, spectacular and comfortable butterfly wing doors have become common on many supercars, from the McLaren F1 to the LaFerrari. And lovers of JDM retro may remember the inexpensive, stylish ToyotSera coupe.

Top hung doors

Ferrari modulo
Ferrari modulo
Ferrari modulo
Ferrari modulo
Lamborghini Egoista
Lamborghini Egoista
Lamborghini Egoista
Lamborghini Egoista
SAAB 9-5X
SAAB 9-5X
Citroen osee
Citroen osee
Bond bug
Bond bug

The most rare and, perhaps, the most unconventional way to enter the salon. Top-hinged doors are closest in design to the lanterns of military aircraft. Their aesthetic value and wow factor are truly endless, which is why the "overhead suspension" is most often used on concept cars and prototypes: Ferrari Modulo, Lamborghini Egoista, SAAB 9-5X, Citroen Osee.

The practical merits of the "car lamp" are close to zero. It is logical that, coupled with the high cost of production and a dubious level of safety (how do you order to get out of a car with a folding hood that made your ears?!), This nullified the serial prospects of doors of this type. From serial cars with a "lantern", only the three-wheeled British Bond Bug comes to mind.

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